Sample Methodologies

Lit Review Paper Methodology

Wong, Paul, Chienping Faith Lai, Richard Nagasawa, and Tieming Lin. 2006. “The “Model Minority”: Bane or Blessing for Asian Americans?”  Journal of Multicultural Counseling 34: 38-49.

In considering the issue of the model minority label, several issues warrant discussion; we consider some of them in this article. First, it is appropriate to question the extent to which Americans in general continue to view Asian Americans as a model minority group. Second, we discuss how Asian Americans feel about this label. Third, we address the accuracy of this label. Fourth, we consider the extent to which such labeling may ironically hinder the academic performance of some Asian Americans. Fifth, we discuss the ways in which such labeling may have detrimental social effects for Asian Americans.

Lit Review Paper with Extensive Methodology

Ramstetter, Catherine L, Robert Murray and Andrew S Garner. 2010. “The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools.” Journal of School Health 80(11):517-26.

This was a comprehensive review of recess-specific literature. Studies, commentaries, and position state- ments dealing with children’s play, fitness, and/or physical activity were all assessed initially, as recess provides an opportunity for children to engage in these endeavors. However, articles were excluded from the review and discussion of the benefits of recess unless they mentioned recess specifically. Also excluded were articles which assumed the occurrence of recess for all children, for example, describing activities and games for recess; measuring students’ Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA); or discussing ways to increase or influence MVPA. Inclusionary criteria limited the review to articles discussing the benefits, barriers, policies and implementation or delivery of elementary-school recess in the United States. Peer- reviewed articles as well as commentaries, reports, and position statements written in English were included.

The authors began with a Google Scholar search to cull definitions, position statements, and policy recommendations from national and international associations and organizations. This search yielded several important documents, including a statement from the 1989 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child which said, ‘‘The child shall have full opportunity to play and recreation, which should be directed to the same purposes as education; society and the public authorities shall endeavor to promote the enjoyment of this right’’ (Art. 31).10 Recess during the school day offers children this opportunity, and for this review, the date of the UN Declaration marked the threshold for inclusion. For this reason, publications prior to 1989 were excluded. The end date of the search was May 2009, when the authors wrote this article.

Following the Google Scholar search, a multi- database search was conducted through the lead author’s library OneSearch mechanism of the fol- lowing categories: ‘‘Education,’’ ‘‘Health & Biological Sciences (Incl. Medicine and Pharmacy),’’ ‘‘Nursing & Allied Health,’’ and ‘‘Psychology.’’ The OneSearch tool included CINAHL, ERIC, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases, among others. Key words searched were ‘‘school recess’’ which was then refined with additional keywords ‘‘academic,’’ ‘‘before lunch,’’ ‘‘cognitive,’’ ‘‘emotional,’’ ‘‘physical,’’ and ‘‘social.’’ Additional articles were selected from the references of included articles. The broad scope of the search yielded over 200 articles, from those focused on one specific aspect of recess to those that examined mul- tiple factors, including how to structure and conduct recess. Because there were so many articles captured, in addition to the exclusionary criteria previously listed, the authors agreed to additional parameters: position statements were only included if they were from a national organization or association and were recess- specific; commentary were excluded unless the com- mentary was nationally disseminated and/or cited by others (eg, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Recess Rules9). Fifteen articles (reviews, experiments, or com- mentary) were identified, which specifically addressed the influence or benefit of recess for the whole child in a school setting in the United States (Table 2).9,11-24 Other studies and articles are referenced which offer support for one or many aspects of recess.

Interview Methodology

Benjamin M. Robbins 2013 “People Like Us Don’t Go There”: Local Culture and College Aspirations in Rural Nebraska” Yale Journal of Sociology.  New Haven, CT: Yale University: 98-129.

The data presented here are drawn from 42 interviews with rising high school seniors and one of their parents/guardians. The interviews used mixed methods including formal ranking exercises and network data collection as well as in-depth probes into systems of meaning. The students attend four different high schools in four different nonurban towns in Nebraska, each differing in population, distance from the nearest urban center, size of high school, and the kind of secondary or higher education offered…

Rioual, Brigit. 2014. “The Study of Choice: Looking at Parent Surveys and Putting Them into Perspective” Trintity College Educational Studies

Survey Methodology

To conduct my study on parent perceptions of Northeast Choice and the schools their children attend through the program, I used parent responses from a survey that was administered by Northeast Choice in June 2013. Surveys were completed either through the mail or Internet, and had both a Spanish and English version. In this survey, parents were asked questions about how Northeast Choice is performing as a program, how they could improve, and how the school their child attends through the program is doing (See Appendix A for full questionnaire). Because I did not administer this survey, I do not know the response rate.

Once I received the data, I looked at the responses to each of the questions on SPSS, a computer program used for statistical analysis. I focused on how parents view the program and the schools the children attend through a few different questions. The questions I looked at were: • Does your child’s school know you and your family? • Do you receive the information you need from your child’s school, such as: your child’s academic progress, school events, special activities or programs, what your child is learning in school, school rules and policies? • Does your child’s school return your phone calls, emails, or other communication within a few days, display the diversity of your child on bulletin boards, paintings, murals, etc., and provide volunteer opportunities for all families? • Which activities have you participated in at your child’s school: parent/teacher conferences, after-school programs, end of the year events, school performances and volunteer as needed? They responded yes or no to these questions or checked which applied. For these questions, I ran a frequency distribution to find the percentage that said yes or no. Additionally, I looked at the question “would you recommend Northeast Choice to other families?” While it was a yes or no question, it did have a place to explain their reasoning. For this question, I focused on their reasoning. The question “does your child’s school know you and your family?” also had a place for them to explain why they said yes or no, so I looked at both the frequency distribution and their reasons.

I coded these responses based on words that stuck out to me (See Appendix B: Tables 2 and 4 for the codes). In the findings section, I discuss the codes as being positive or negative because in some cases, if the parents responded yes, they still had an issue or a negative experience (and vice versa). While Northeast Choice received 247 mail surveys back, only 194 respondents answered every question that I focused on. This has given me a sample size of 194. Although not every respondent out of the 194 provided explanations to the two openended questions I focused on, I still analyzed those that did respond. By focusing on these questions with my sample size of 194, I was able to answer my research question: how do parents experience Northeast Choice and the school their children attends through the program?


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